The scientific definition of sound, which is omnipresent throughout the world, is “a vibration that propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid,” and each sound is characterized by its wavelength hertz (Hz), intensity (decibel), speed, and direction. The audible sound that is perceptible by humans has frequencies from about 20 to 20,000 Hz.


The simplest definition of silence is the absence of human noise. Silence, then, is all the sounds from the Earth minus anthropophony, noise produced by humans. According to acoustic ecologist Gordon Hempton, who has been recording sounds from the Earth for the past 40 years, silence is on the verge of extinction. He believes there are at the most 50 areas around the world which can be called silent. The bioacoustician Jérôme Sueur has written a natural history of silence (Actes Sud publisher) in which he examines all the different kinds of silence.

Green music

Scientists have found that corn grows better when exposed to sounds at frequencies between 200 and 300 Hertz. Playing sounds for mustard plants enhanced survival in the face of simulated drought. Sound delayed tomato ripening. Mung beans, cucumbers and rice have all sprouted more in response to certain sounds. Strawberries have grown bushier; kiwi and rice roots, longer. Sound has guided roots to water. In a study published in the National Library of Medicine, scientists show how plants generate and respond to sound and how sound can be used to improve plant growth and plant resistance against stresses. Exposing plants to sound activates plant innate immunity. Sound has also influenced interactions between plants and animals. For instance, only the vibrating buzz of a particular bee will trigger some plants to release pollen. Pitcher plants even create their own bat call to attract bats.

Sound Healing

Sound healing is a holistic practice that allows you to sink into a deep state of meditation using therapeutic grade instruments to create calming soundscapes. Sound healing sessions are also called sound baths because you are bathing in the vibrations guiding your body in a state of balance. Instruments that create resonance - Himalayan singing bowls, crystal singing bowls, drums, gongs - are used to promote a sense of calm and relaxation.


Biophony, a term coined by Bernie Krause, is the study of sounds coming from plants and animals. It explores new definitions of animal territory. It addresses changes in diversity, density and richness of the animal population.

Acoustic ecology

Also called ecoacoustics or soundscape, is a discipline studying the relationship, mediated through sound, between humans and their environment. Acoustic ecology can inform us of changes in the climate or other environmental changes since every day we listen to sounds in the world to identify their source such as bird, car, plane, wind, water. But we don't listen to those sounds as a network, a mesh of relationships that form an ecology. A soundscape is a combination of biophony, geophony, and anthrophony. Across time and space, various combinations generate unique soundscapes.


It is the study of the Earth’s sounds, like the wind blowing, thunder, rain or waves crashing, for example.

Noise and health 

A growing body of research shows that chronic noise is not just annoying, but a threat to the health, increasing the risk of hypertension, stroke, heart attack, according to a story published in the New York Times. Noise exposure primes the body to overreact, amplifying the negative effects. Noise enters the body through the ears, but it is relayed to the stress detection center of the brain called amygdala. If it is chronically overactivated, it starts to produce harmful effects. Researchers in Boston made an astounding discovery: People who lived in areas with his levels of transportation noise were more likely to have highly activated amygdalia and within five years major cardiac events.

Soundscape conservation 

Until recently, the emphasis has been on preserving the Earth’s biodiversity and the habitats these organisms depend upon. However, soundscape ecology encourages biologists to consider natural soundscapes as resources worthy of conservation efforts. Soundscapes that come from relatively untrammeled habitats have value for wildlife as demonstrated by the numerous negative effects of anthropogenic noise on various species. Organisms that use acoustic cues generated by their prey may be particularly impacted by human-altered soundscapes. In addition, natural soundscapes can have benefits for human wellbeing and may help generate a distinct sense of place, connecting people to the environment and providing unique aesthetic experiences.


Noise is a byproduct of increased urbanization. The volume and frequency of anthropophony has increased. Animal biodiversity has shown to decline because of chronic noise levels in cities and along roadways. Birds may be particularly sensitive to noise pollution given that they rely heavily on acoustic signals for intraspecific communication. The great tits, for instance, have changed the frequency of their call to adapt. One study focusing on community composition found that habitats exposed to anthropophony hosted fewer bird species than regions without noise, even though both areas had similar numbers of nests. Beluga whales have been observed to raise their voices (like humans in a crowded pub) when there is loud shipping noise.


A whole symphony of sounds, sights, scents, and sensations surround us, and we blindly walk right through them. Cymatics is the science of sound and vibration made visible. In the most common mode of operation, a surface such as a large plate or a diaphragm is peppered with a thin layer of particles, paste or a liquid. A particular frequency is then passed through the surface and the particles begin to take on marvelous geometrical patterns which correspond to the frequency applied. Each frequency creates a different image. The musical notes are brought to sight. The patterns that emerge from the sounds are analogous to the patterns that are created in sacred geometry.

The four functions of silence

According to French philosopher and psychotherapist Cynthia Fleury, who has co-authored a pamphlet called Ce Qui Ne Peut Être Volé (What cannot be stolen), “silence is one of the key factors contributing to the well-being, an essential element to mental and physical health, according to researchers in environmental psychology or 'geography of health'. According to Fleury, silence has four functions: Spiritual (in silence we can access the sacred), intellectual (without silent focus one cannot think , invent, etc.). The third function is therapeutic (silence preserves our physical and psychic health), and, finally, silence is necessary for a healthy public life (to have any kind of civic life, one needs to be able to listen to others, therefore to be silent). "These 4 functions of silence make it an indispensable individual and collective resource for the health of a democratic life,” she claims. For the philosopher, the creation of private and public spaces, architectures, services, neighborhoods, public transportation which allow everyone “to have free and durable access to silence is to preserve the quality of our attention to the world, to ourselves and to others, humans and non humans.” Cynthia Fleury & Antoine Fenoglio, Ce Qui Ne Peut être Volé (Tracts Gallimard).


David George Haskell

Haskell is a British and American biologist and professor of biology and environmental studies at Sewanee, Tennessee. He is the author of two of the most brilliant and original books on the sound of nature: The Song of Trees (Viking), about 12 trees around the world and their relationship to their environment and to humans. He more recently published Sounds Wild and Broken(Viking) on “sonic marvels, evolution’s creativity and the crisis of sensory extinction.

World Forum for acoustic ecology

This organization was founded in 1993 by individuals and organizations sharing a common concern for the state of the world’s soundscapes, the acoustic environment perceived by humans. Its members engage in the study of the social, cultural and ecological aspects of the sonic environments across the world. WFAE works with its vast network of partners across the world to promote education in listening to the soundscape, research and study, protecting and preserving existing natural soundscapes and times and spaces of quiet.

Doug Aitken

L.A. based Doug Aitken is one of the most important contemporary artists. Sound and rhythm occupy a special place in his work. At the Inhotim foundation, In Brazil, for instance, Aitken has created The Sonic Pavilion. At its center, lays a 202 meter deep hole where a set of microphone is installed to hear the sounds of the earth. Sonic Fountain, features 9 taps on a grid dripping according to a precise rhythm written specifically for this piece. Microphones placed in the water capture the sound of the falling drops.

Christian Marclay

In Swiss American artist Christian Marclay, music and patterns, like in a music score, plays a central role. In one of his performances, he placed hundreds of blank music sheets around Berlin. People wrote musical notes or just graffiti on these white pages. Marclay then gave these sheets to be played by musicians. His paintings function also like pieces of music with silences and changes of rhythm.

Bernie Krause

Krause, born in Detroit, Michigan, started out as a musician. He’s one of the very first “soundscape ecologists”. In 1968, he founded Wild Sanctuary, dedicated to the recording and archiving of natural soundscapes. Soundscape ecology is the study of the relationship between living organisms - humans and others - and their environment. His Great Animal Orchestra, in 2016 at the Cartier Foundation in Paris, which has been traveling around the world since, made people aware of the fragility of natural sounds at a time when biodiversity is in steep decline. Through his organization, Wild Sanctuary, he has collected the soundscapes of more than 2,000 different habitat types, marine and terrestrial. Krause explains that the secrets hidden in the natural world’s shrinking sonic environment must be preserved, not only for our scientific understanding, but for our cultural heritage and humanity’s physical and spiritual welfare.

Yoann Ximenes

The 37 year old French artist transforms sounds into artworks. He makes visible what we cannot see: the first cry of a newborn, the songs of extinct birds, Obama’s famous “Yes We Can” as well as the music of the planets or Mantras - every sound is taking shape through Yoann Ximenes’s art. “Sound has a volume, sculptures do too,” says the artist. “Sound is present everywhere. It’s an invisible and immaterial energy.”

Anni Albers

Even though she was sometimes known as Josef Albers’ wife, Anni Albers was one of the giants of XXth Century art. She was a revolutionary textile artist and one of the few women who trained at the Bauhaus where she studied with Paul Klee. She had to flee nazi Germany with her husband. She found refuge at Black Mountain College, in North Carolina. In 1949, she was invited to a solo show at the MoMA which is the beginning of her public recognition. Almost by accident, she discovered lithography and screen printing which will give her a new career. She passed away in 1994.

Charmion von Wiegand

Born in 1896 in Chicago, Charmion von Wiegand studied philosophy, theater, Greek, art history, archeology, but she started her life as a journalist. Based in Moscow, she was the sole woman correspondent for Hearst Universal Services. In 1926, she started to paint after receiving psychoanalytic analysis. In 1941, Charmion met Dutch artist Piet Mondrian who had recently emigrated to the USA. This relationship was decisive for both of them. In 1942, despite the lack of support from Mondrian, Charmion von Wiegand started painting again. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, her paintings were reflecting her inner perceptions and higher states of consciousness. She was also deeply engaged in Tibetan Buddhism. She went on to produce paintings inspired by the symbolism and instruments of Tibetan Buddhist practices. She passed away in 1983.

Ryoji Ikeda

Born in 1966 in Gifu, Japan, Ryoji Ikeda is a composer and an electronic artist. After studying economics at the university of Tokyo of which he says he does not remember anything, he started his career in 1990 as a DJ. He was one of the founders of the collective Dumb Type which was the first to experiment with data streams. In his work, he elaborately orchestrates sound, visuals, materials, physical phenomena and mathematical notions into immersive live performances and installations. Ikeda transforms data into mesmerizing art works.

Nikola Tesla

“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibrations.” - Nikola Tesla

Tree listening project

The Tree Listening Project was developed in 2007 by Alex Metcalf, as a way to engage people with trees, through linking the public with the hidden world behind the bark. Using headphones one can listen in on the movement of water as it travels up from the ground to the leaves, in a truly immersive experience. The Tree Listening Project is a traveling, educational tool used to facilitate a deeper understanding of ‘how trees work’.



Fog is a low-lying cloud and its moisture is generally locally generated. Fog appears when water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that are suspended in the air. It is highly influenced by nearby bodies of water, wind and topography. According to the generally accepted definition, fog reduces visibility to less than one kilometer. Giants redwoods, the biggest and oldest trees on the planet, receive almost 40% of their moisture from coastal fog through fog drip. Insects depend on wet fog as their principal source of water.
The disappearance of fog would


In particularly dry regions where rain is rare or non-existent, like along the Peruvian coastal region, in Mexico, Bolivia, Colombia, people have been trying to catch - to harvest - water from fog using mesh strung up on hillsides. Tiny droplets condense on the netting and dribble down into pipes that carry the water into containers where it can be used to irrigate crops or even as drinking water. Each net can capture between 200 and 400 liters of fresh water per day. More technologies are being developed. For instance, two Chilean architects are developing fog harvesting towers to collect water as high as possible in the fog.


Cloud forests or water forests are generally tropical or subtropical moist forests characterized by a frequent, persistent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level. Cloud forests are amongst the most biodiversity rich ecosystems, with a large number of species directly or indirectly depending on them. Only 1% of the woodland consists of cloud forests. In the 1970’s they comprised over 11% of all tropical forests. A total of 736 cloud forests have been identified in 59 countries by the UN’s World Conservation Monitoring Center. Half of these cloud forests are located in Latin America. Because of their dependency on local climate, these forests are affected by climate change. It would greatly impact species living in those areas like frogs and lizards, for example and cause the extinction of species.


At any given moment, about two-thirds of our planet is covered by clouds. So it’s not too surprising that clouds play an important role in Earth’s climate. They affect climate in two major ways. First, they are an essential part of the water cycle. Clouds provide an important link between the rain and snow, oceans and lakes, and plants and animals. Secondly, clouds also have an important effect on Earth’s temperature. Clouds can both cool down and warm up the temperatures on Earth. Clouds within a mile or so of Earth’s surface tend to cool more than they warm. These low, thicker clouds mostly reflect the Sun’s heat. This cools Earth’s surface. Clouds high up in the atmosphere have the opposite effect: They tend to warm Earth more than they cool. High, thin clouds trap some of the Sun’s heat. This warms Earth’s surface. Climate scientists predict that as Earth’s climate warms, there will also be fewer clouds to cool it down. So, unfortunately, we can’t count on clouds alone to slow down the warming.


Flying rivers are moisture-laden air currents - aerial rivers - formed above the Amazonian rainforest and extend over a large part of the South American continent. Flying rivers are created by the water vapor released by the billions of trees in the Amazon forest. On average, a forest tree releases 1,000 liters of water vapor into the atmosphere every day - 8 times more than oceans. Flying rivers are responsible for sustaining rainfall in the Amazon and South American region. A study by Brazilian climate scientist, Antonio Nobre, has determined that without the flying river, 70% of Brazil would turn into a desert.


A monsoon is the reversal of winds accompanied by heavy precipitations.
The monsoon is much more than rain — it’s a collective mood, a shared experience across communities and across time, and deeply ingrained. Artists and poets have tried to capture it for centuries. Novelists use it as a plot device, and it provides rainy, romantic interludes in countless Bollywood movies. And the monsoon is an economic force, particularly for the small farmers who get three-quarters, or more, of their annual rainfall from it. A good monsoon can bring plenty, a bad monsoon, hardship. And in the past, a terrible monsoon could bring famine.
The monsoon is becoming more erratic because of a basic bit of science: Warmer air holds more moisture. The moisture accumulates in the atmosphere and can stay there longer, increasing the length of dry spells. But then, when it does rain, it dumps all that moisture in a very short time. It can be a month’s rainfall or a week’s rainfall in a few hours to a few days.


Fireflies belong to the family of beetles that has more than 2,000 species, most of them light emitting. They produce light, through a chemical reaction inside their abdomen, primarily at dusk, to attract males. They live in marshes or in wet and wooded areas where their larvae find abundant food. Moist atmospheric conditions are very important for them to thrive. Fireflies have attracted humans since ancient times. Japanese have a particular reverence for fireflies and have set aside parks specifically for them, called hotaru. There is even a festival of fireflies each year in June. In poetry, they are a metaphor for passionate love.


When looking at the skyand all the aerial phenomena, we observed how artists through the ages had themselves looked at the sky and at the way light is reflected. We particularly loved looking at Japanese master Hiroshi Sugimoto’s “Seascapes”.  Shot in different parts of the world, always the same way, always in black and white, his photographs seem to fuse sea and sky and allow us to look at the Earth as a meditative experience


Wind is the natural movement of air or other gasses. It is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure which are mainly due to temperature differences. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area resulting in winds of different speeds. The two major factors of large scale wind patterns are the differences in heat between the Equator and the Poles and the rotation of the planet. In arid climates, winds are the major source of erosion. But a positive role the wind plays is in seed dispersal. Seeds can float on the breeze or flutter to the ground.


Seeds are the embryonic stage of a plant’s life cycle. It is often contained within a fruit to help its spreading. Seeds serve several functions for the plants that produce them. Key among these functions are embryo nourishment, dispersal to a new location, and dormancy when growth stops during unfavorable times. Plants have evolved in many ways to disperse their offspring by dispersing their seeds - by wind, by water, by animals (for instance, seeds with hooks which attach to the fur or wool of animals). The seed we have embroidered on some of the garments is the Starflower - or Lomelosia stellata. Also known under the name Scabiosa stellata, it is native of southwestern Europe. The name Scabiosa is derived from the latin word ‘Scabere’ which means “to scratch”. It is found in abandoned fields, roadsides. Seeds from starflowers are dispersed by wind.


Rain water is droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water. Global warming is causing changes in the precipitation patterns globally. Current climate models indicate that rising temperatures will intensify the Earth’s water cycle, increasing evaporation. Increased evaporation will result in more frequent and intense storms, but will also contribute to drying over some land areas. The fine particulate matter produced by car exhaust and other human sources of pollution forms cloud condensation nuclei, leads to the production of clouds and increases the likelihood of rain. In some parts of the world, changes in atmospheric humidity and heat caused by climate change are expected to increase the intensity and frequency of extreme weather and flood events caused by atmospheric rivers.



Born in Cuzco, a village near Machu Pichu, in Peru, Abel Cruz founded the NGO Los Sin Agua (Those without water), with his own money. Started in 2004 to help eradicate poverty, Los Sin Agua has been bringing fresh water to communities without access to it. The NGO has been able to help over 60,000 people by developing and installing fog catchers made of plastic mesh. Each one of these fog traps produces between 200 and 400 liters of fresh water per day. As of 2019, Abel Cruz had installed 2,000 fog catchers in 14 regions of Peru and is now extending his work to other regions and even Latin American countries.


The WMO is a specialized agency from the United Nations “dedicated to international cooperation and coordination on the state and behavior of the Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans, the weather and the climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water resources.” It helps decision makers and communities be better prepared for weather and climate events. It also has a very important role concerning water. 11% of the world population does not have access to clean, safe water. The WMO monitors the availability and quality of water around the world as the impact of climate change is felt through water.


Photographer Thierry Ardouin has spent over 10 years investigating and photographing the world of seeds. In 2009, he was intrigued when he discovered there was something called the Catalogue Officiel des Espèces et Variétés Végétales. Upon further investigation, Ardouin is astonished to discover that only the seeds in the official catalog are allowed to be produced in France. He then decides to find out if there’s a difference between “legal” and “illegal” seeds. The result of this 10 year investigation with the help of growers and scientists is the stunning book Histoires de Graines, published by Atelier EXB and the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle.


Emergence Magazine is a media published by the Kalliopeia Foundation, a private institution based in the San Francisco Bay area, created in 1997. The purpose of Kalliopeia is “to help support people and organizations who are working to bring spiritual values into institutions and systems of everyday life and work.” It does that in particular through grants to help innovative programs. The foundation’s work is based on the understanding that ecological, spiritual and cultural renewal are interdependent. Kalliopeia publishes Emergence Magazine, a free online publication and an annual publication. It features stories connecting the bonds between ecology, culture and spirituality.


WOTR is a group that aids monsoon-dependent farmers in hundreds of Indian villages in trench-digging and other water-conservation efforts to make the most of their increasingly erratic supply. WOTR has worked so far in close to 5,000 villages in 10 Indian states. The monsoon is becoming more erratic because of a basic bit of science: with climate change, warmer air holds more moisture. That moisture accumulates in the atmosphere and stays there longer, increasing the length of dry spells. The goal of WOTR is to insure water supply to farming communities, in particular, in case of failed or weak monsoon. By enhancing the availability of water, WOTR helps fight the key cause of rural poverty.


If emissions continue to rise unchecked, the Arctic could be ice-free in the summer by 2040..



Ocean has a memory—and it's fading. Ocean memory is what scientists call the stability of ocean conditions in the sea's top layer. It helps scientists forecast ocean conditions that contribute to how we manage sensitive marine ecosystems and prepare for extreme weather events. According to scientists, oceans are experiencing a sort of amnesia in the face of the climate crisis. As global temperatures rise, the thickness of the ocean’s top layer—the mixed layer—is gradually thinning. The loss of ocean memory could have catastrophic results on oceans and land.


Global warming is mainly caused by carbon dioxide put into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels. Oceans absorb large amounts of these emissions, while also absorbing heat from the atmosphere, serving as a critical buffer against climate change and keeping the world from otherwise becoming a practically unlivable hothouse. By some estimates the oceans have taken up about 25 percent of the excess carbon dioxide, and more than 90 percent of the excess heat, that has resulted from burning of fossil fuels and other human activities since the 19th century. 


Eutrophication is the gradual increase in the concentration of phosphorus, nitrogen and other plant nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem. By using more fertilizer than the crops could use, the unused nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, are washed into the rivers or lakes, overfertilizing them too. The residue forms algae and, as it is decomposing, it uses oxygen thus reducing oxygen level in the water. That change of chemical composition in the sediments of the lake causes it to release more phosphorus. The same happens in the ocean causing death zones in a few hundred places around the world.


— Sir Richard Attenborough


— Sylvia Earle, marine biologist and oceanographer


Three months’ worth of rain fell on a single day in September 2020 filling parts of Dakar with algae-covered water. Excessive algae blooms disrupt the ecological balance and deteriorate the water quality. These organisms release potent toxins that often lead to massive fish and animal die-offs. They also impact humans, causing illness, paralysis, liver cancer, or even death.


A mangrove is a shrub or tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. These blue forests can store 4-10 times as much carbon as terrestrial-based trees, burying it deep within their roots. In the face of rising tides and more severe storm surges, mangroves offer coastal resiliency, mitigating as much as $65 billion in damages from natural disasters annually. Furthermore, these mangrove forests serve as a home for many species, helping to bolster biodiversity for marine habitats while supporting small-scale fisheries and ecotourism. The mangroves mitigate climate change, capture carbon and also reduce the height and speed of waves to lessen storms. 


On average, a forest tree releases 1,000 liters of vapor into the air daily. Flying rivers are moisture-laden air currents ‘arial rivers’ that are formed above the Amazonian rainforest and extend over a large part of the South American continent. This flying river runs counter-current to the Amazon river and its tributaries and replaces the water that is drained into the Atlantic Ocean. They are responsible for sustaining rainfall in the Amazon and South American region.


Globally, losing 25% of world forest cover is a catastrophic point, but we've lost almost 40%.



Close to 20% of Amazon rainforest has been lost. As the forest is reduced and fragmented, its ability to cycle water and generate rain into the dry season is diminished.

If the dry season is longer than 4 months, the jungle trees die and are replaced by savanna. Parts of Amazon have now changed. Globally, losing 25% of world forest cover is a catastrophic point, but we've lost almost 40%. Thus, more carbon is produced and released in the atmosphere.


— Sebastião Salgado


— Chief Seattle


Forests are not so rooted, so reliably placed, as we might think. Trees reproduce primarily through seed dispersal. In a stable environment, a forest might continue to regenerate in roughly the same location decade after decade. But, in a less friendly environment, the seedlings will not germinate. The only ones that will survive are those that happen to be carried northward, for example, or to a slightly higher elevation. As the climate changes in and around forests, seeds might succeed in places where they did not before or fail where they once succeeded. If this pattern continues, the forest will begin a slow journey in a new direction. That phenomenon is called tree migration.


A planet without insects is not a functioning planet. Around 70% of crop species rely to some extent on insect pollination. Ironically, our global food production is in ascent, wiping out the very thing our food relies on. The decline is not just confined to insects. Wildlife has also been squeezed out as our agriculture has expanded much on earth habitable land. Today of all the birds 30% are wild, of all the mammals only 4% are wild.


“False spring” refers to a period of weather in late winter or early spring, when temperatures are significantly above normal and extend for a period of time. As the climate changes, false springs are becoming increasingly normal. False springs are nothing to celebrate: These higher temperatures are negatively affecting the life cycles of both plants and animals. Plants and animals use the winter months to germinate and prepare for the rest of the year. Truncating the winter season leaves them vulnerable and at higher risk for sickness or death. False springs create uncomfortable situations for humans as well: The warmer weather triggers the early arrival of insects like mosquitoes and ticks. These spells of warm weather even mess with the economy. A false spring can ruin agricultural crops.


Holocene is the current geological epoch. It began approximately 12,000 years ago. This established the modern world. Sea levels were stabilized, predictable seasons and reliable weather. This stability was fundamental. For the first time civilization was possible and humanity wasted no time in taking advantage of it. We domesticated rice, wheat, sorghum. The holocene was characterized by flowing rivers, cloak of forest, abundance of life and reliable weather. Throughout the Holocene we have had enough food to eat, water to drink and fresh air to breathe. 


This species of monkey, endemic to Brazil, is listed as Endangered based upon a suspected population reduction upwards of 50%. This reduction in number is due to habitat decline caused by deforestation for farming, cattle ranching and urbanization in both protected and unprotected areas. It is also a victim of continued high levels of hunting. Spider Monkeys need trees for displacement, food and shelter. The white-cheeked spider monkey had 5% of its range affected by fire over the past 20 years. They feed largely on the mature, soft parts of a very wide variety of fruits and play an important role as seed dispersers. They disperse seeds of more than 138 species of fruit trees. 


Epicormic growth is a plant response triggered by fire. It is the sprouting of dormant buds that lie dormant beneath the bark. Australia’s flora and fauna are adapted to fire through millennia of evolution, under normal conditions. It’s the forest’s regeneration mechanism after a forest fire.